Infectious aortitis is a rare disease and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. A 66-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal and lower back pain, fever, chills, and anorexia continuing for a week. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed multiple periaortic enlarged lymphatic nodes, mural wall thickening, and gas collections in the infrarenal aorta and proximal segment of right common iliac artery. The patient was hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute emphysematous aortitis. During hospitalization, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli was grown in all blood and urine cultures. Despite sensitive antibiotherapy, abdominal and back pain, inflammation biomarkers, and fever of the patient were not improved. Control CT demonstrated a newly developed mycotic aneurysm, increased intramural gas collection, and periaortic soft-tissue thickening. Urgent vascular surgery was recommended to the patient by the heart team, but the patient rejected surgery due to the high perioperative risk. Alternatively, an endovascular rifampin-impregnated stent-graft was successfully implanted and antibiotics were completed at 8 weeks. After procedure, inflammatory indicators were normalized and clinical symptoms of the patient were resolved. No microorganism grew on control blood and urine cultures. The patient was discharged with a good health.
Aortitis should be suspected in patients who present with fever, abdominal and back pain, especially in the presence of predisposing risk factors. Infectious aortitis (IA) accounts for a small part of all aortitis cases and the most common causative microorganism is Salmonella. The mainstay treatment of IA is sensitive antibiotherapy. Surgery may be required in patients who are unresponsive to antibiotics or develop aneurysm. Alternatively, endovascular treatment can be performed in selected cases.
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Published online: February 14, 2023
Accepted: January 13, 2023
Received in revised form: December 14, 2022
Received: October 25, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
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