Case Report|Articles in Press

Refractory electrical storm in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

Published:February 09, 2023DOI:


      A 63-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), mid-ventricular obstruction, and an apical aneurysm had an episode of cardiac arrest due to sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). He was resuscitated and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was implanted. In the following years, several episodes of VT and ventricular fibrillation were successfully terminated by antitachycardia pacing or ICD shocks. Three years after ICD implantation, he was re-admitted because of refractory electrical storm (ES). Since aggressive pharmacological treatments, direct current cardioversions, and deep sedation were not effective, he underwent epicardial catheter ablation which was successful to terminate ES. However, because of the recurrence of refractory ES after one year, he proceeded to surgical left ventricular myectomy with apical aneurysmectomy which provided him a relatively stable clinical course for six years. Although epicardial catheter ablation may be an acceptable option, surgical resection of apical aneurysm seems to be most efficacious for ES in patients with HCM and an apical aneurysm.

      Learning objectives

      In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are the gold standard of therapy for prophylaxis against sudden death. Electrical storm (ES) caused by recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia can cause sudden death even in patients with ICDs. Although epicardial catheter ablation may be an acceptable option, surgical resection of apical aneurysm is most efficacious for ES in patients with HCM, mid-ventricular obstruction, and an apical aneurysm.


      ES (electrical storm), HCM (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibillator), NSVT (non-sustained ventricular tachycardia), VT (ventricular tachycardia)


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