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Oozing-type rupture caused by right ventricular intramural hematoma after right ventricular infarction

      Abstract

      An 81-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of decreased level of consciousness. He had bradycardia (27 beats/min). Electrocardiography showed ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF and ST-segment depression in leads aVL, V1. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) visualized reduced motion of the left ventricular (LV) inferior wall and right ventricular (RV) free wall. Coronary angiography revealed occlusion of the right coronary artery. A primary percutaneous coronary intervention was successfully performed with temporary pacemaker backup. On the third day, the sinus rhythm recovered, and the temporary pacemaker was removed. On the fifth day, a sudden cardiac arrest occurred. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed. TTE showed a high-echoic effusion around the right ventricle, indicating a hematoma. The drainage was ineffective. He died on the eighth day. An autopsy showed the infarcted lesion and an intramural hematoma in the RV. However, no definite perforation of the myocardium was detected. The hematoma extended to the epicardium surface, indicative of oozing-type RV rupture induced by RV infarction. The oozing-type rupture induced by RV infarction might develop asymptomatically without influence on the vital signs of the patient. Frequent echocardiographic evaluation is essential in cases of RV infarction taking care of silent oozing-type rupture.

      Learning objective

      Inferior left ventricular infarction sometimes complicates right ventricular (RV) infarction. The typical manifestations of RV infarction include low blood pressure, low cardiac output, and elevated right atrium pressure. Although the frequency is low, fatal complications of oozing-type RV rupture might progress asymptomatically. Frequent echocardiographic screening is necessary to detect them.

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