Surgical septal myectomy is increasingly utilized for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy who remain symptomatic despite maximum doses of medical therapy. Deep and extensive septal muscle resections may lead to iatrogenic ventricular septal defects that are detected on transesophageal echocardiography immediately after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and immediately corrected in the same surgery. However markedly thinned out ventricular septum after myectomy may be prone to late rupture from high left ventricular systolic pressures causing delayed detection of a ventricular septal defect when the patients present with new onset symptoms. Additionally, a surgical injury to the first septal perforator artery during the myocardial resection leading to septal infarction may contribute to delayed occurrence of ventricular septal defect. Such a predisposing deep septal resection or septal infarction may be associated with varying degrees of atrioventricular nodal block warranting a permanent pacing. A new onset interventricular shunt from such an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect often leads to heart failure as the filling pressures increase disproportionately in the thick hypertrophied left ventricle. Transcatheter closure is an alternative to a high-risk repeat surgery. This report of device closure of two delayed septal ruptures after myectomy discusses the reasons, presentation, catheter approaches, and procedural challenges.
<Learning objective: Deep extended septal myectomy for medically refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy may lead to early or late iatrogenic ventricular septal defect. Such an extensive loss of septal muscle may be additionally indicated by co-occurrence of atrioventricular nodal block that needs permanent pacing. Heart failure from the new onset interventricular shunt is not clinically tolerated by the hypertrophied left ventricle due to elevated end diastolic pressures. Transcatheter closure of the ventricular septal defect is an attractive alternative to a morbid repeat surgery.>
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Published online: December 30, 2021
Accepted: November 17, 2021
Received in revised form: November 4, 2021
Received: September 29, 2021
© 2021 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.