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Thrombosed stuck mitral valve during advanced mechanical circulatory support for post-cardiotomy shock

Published:December 16, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2021.11.004

      Abstract

      We report a case of mechanical prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis in a 52-year-old woman with previous diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy, who was supported with advanced mechanical circulatory support after urgent mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR) and tricuspid annuloplasty. Difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass needed support with veno-arterial extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and Impella (Abiomed Inc, Danvers, MA, USA), so-called ECPELLA. Temporary discontinuation of heparin and massive blood transfusion were necessary due to four times of reoperation for bleeding during ECPELLA support. Poor recovery of cardiac function needed escalation from ECPELLA to extracorporeal biventricular assist device (ex-BiVAD) using two centrifugal pumps on Day 12. After gradual decrease in the left ventricular assist device flow, transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopic images revealed the stuck leaflets of the mitral prosthesis. Therefore, the patient underwent re-MVR with a bioprosthesis on Day 18, followed by continued assistance with ex-BiVAD. The patient was finally weaned from ex-BiVAD on Day 28 and was transferred to the referral hospital for rehabilitation. She was alive in good general condition at 2-year follow-up. It is important to balance the effects of anticoagulation on advanced mechanical circulatory support with ECPELLA, against the side effects of bleeding, especially in post-cardiotomy patients with bleeding tendency.
      <Learning objective: We should recognize the fatal risks of bleeding and thrombosis during advanced mechanical support, including Impella, VA-ECMO, ECPELLA, and ex-BiVAD, especially in the post-cardiotomy setting. We should also understand the choice of mechanical circulatory support, timely escalation to ex-BiVAD to avoid multiorgan failure, the diagnosis of mechanical mitral prosthetic thrombosed valve using echocardiography and fluoroscopy, and mitral valve replacement in the patient supported with ex-BiVAD.>

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