Heart failure caused by iatrogenic atrial septal defect after cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation

      Abstract

      An 83-year-old man with no structural heart disease underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). The PVI was successfully performed by cryoballoon ablation with a single transseptal puncture. A 12Fr deflectable sheath and an 8.5Fr long sheath crossed the interatrial septum via the same puncture site. Five months after PVI, the patient was readmitted because of heart failure and recurrence of AF. The echocardiogram showed a large (10.7 × 5.8 mm) iatrogenic atrial septal defect (IASD) at the previous puncture site. Both right-to-left and left-to-right shunts were observed during systole and diastole, respectively. Despite the initiation of optimal medical therapy for heart failure, symptoms were not completely controlled and IASD remained 11 months after PVI. Eventually, he received multiple additional PVI for recurrence of AF and percutaneous transcatheter closure (13 mm disc for 10.9 × 8.9 mm- IASD), then heart failure was controlled with the improvement of the right atrial and ventricular size. Although the induction of heart failure by IASD after PVI is rare, it should be noted as one of the causes, especially after cryoballoon ablation with simultaneous mapping catheter insertion via a single transseptal puncture.
      <Learning objective: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the established therapy for atrial fibrillation; however, it may cause several complications including iatrogenic atrial septal defect (IASD). IASD is less apparent than other complications, therefore it may be underrecognized. Although the induction of heart failure by IASD after PVI is rare, it should be noted as one of the causes, especially after cryoballoon ablation with simultaneous circular mapping catheter insertion via a single transseptal puncture.>

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